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Harlequin is a color described as being located between green and yellow (closer to green than to yellow) on the color wheel. On color plate 17 in the 1930 book A Dictionary of Color (see reference below), the color harlequin is shown as being a highly saturated rich color at a position halfway between chartreuse and green. Thus in modern color terminology, harlequin is the color halfway between green and chartreuse green on the RGB color wheel.

The first recorded use of harlequin as a color name in English was in 1923.

Harlequin is a pure spectral color at approximately 552 nanometers on the visible spectrum when plotted on the CIE chromaticity diagram.

Silver Patron tequila is sold in harlequin-colored boxes.

Harlequin is also an adjective used to describe something that is colored in a pattern, usually a diamond-shaped pattern, as in the dress traditionally associated with harlequins. Similarly, it can mean anything multicolored or prismatic, such as opals or other precious gems which are highly variegated in color and hue. In the early 2000s, a harlequin color paint was invented for automobiles that appears different colors from different angles of view.